EEB Greenhouse Accession Data for Bursera schlechtendalii. Bursera schlechtendalii is a species of plants with 32 observations. Brief summary. No one has contributed a brief summary to this page yet. Explore what EOL knows about Bursera schlechtendalii. Add a brief summary to this.
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Dominance Index values for the mixture of four squirting Bursera species black bars and for four non-squirting ones white bars.
The dominance index of its chemical mixture was 0. Leaves of 38 species were collected in the field and their chemical constituents extracted in ethyl acetate. Squirt strength was ranked from 0 no release to 3 squirting into the air corresponding to an increasing amount of liquids released.
The rupture of the laticifers stops the flow of latex to the margin of the leaf that is subsequently consumed by these beetles Williams, If the release of a highly pressurized liquid is an effective antiherbivore defense, the chemical nature of the individual components may not be as important as in non-releasing Bursera species.
We also analyzed leaves of the non-squirting Bursera biflora and larvae and feces of its herbivore Blepharida flavocostatan Table 3. The effectiveness of canals and their secretions for defense has been documented for many plant species.
The remaining third releases intermediate amounts of fluids that may partially bathe the leaf blade without producing a squirt.
These beetles often carry spores of pathogenic fungi that infect the tree, weaken it, and accelerate its death. Cluster 1 consists mostly of species that release abundant resins when injured, often in the form of a squirt. Related articles in Google Scholar. Relative amounts of the main 10 to 15 compounds were used for the Principal Component Analysis.
Squirt strength was documented by cutting 5 to 20 leaves on multiple individuals per species with nail clippers. Wikispecies has information related to Bursera. Chemical constituents were extracted and chemically analyzed as described in the text. United States Department of Agriculture.
Insects that make trenches feed on plants in which canals reticulate and the flow of secretions at a given point is maintained through several pathways. These species may also release an anal secretion or regurgitate when attacked or disturbed by predators Evans et al.
SUMMARY It is apparent that an interaction exists between the chemical and the mechanical components of the squirt gun defense in Burserawhich has resulted in some species having powerful squirts but simple chemistry. For more details on methodology see Becerra, In conifers, bark beetles attack the trees in mass, cutting across resin ducts and blocking the transportation of monoterpenes to the wound Raffa, Bursera fagaroides Kunth Engl.
If the different compounds of a mixture act synergistically, greater toxicity or deterrence may result. The collection of their feces is the result of a dorsal anus and a neuromuscular propulsion system that conveys feces forward over the larvae Vencl and Morton, In the second category are a series of physical barriers to avoid being eaten.
This slows their growth, delays pupation, and increases their risk of predation Becerra, a. Individual compounds were identified by matching the obtained spectra with standard mass spectral libraries NBS 7. Furthermore, larvae whose natural shields were removed and then reared on a diet of lettuce were defenseless. They feed by mining the leaves, but they sometimes rupture the canals and die because they become covered by resins.
Yet, canal-bearing plants can be vulnerable to phloem-sucking insects that can direct their feeding organs to avoid secretory canals Johnson, View large Download slide.
About one third of the Mexican Bursera species are able to squirt resins when injured, while another third releases little or no fluids. The resin of some squirting burseras consists almost entirely of one compound. Yet, this does not explain why only one or two monoterpenes dominate the mixture. The antipredatory defense of beetles of the genus Blepharida corresponds to the defenses of the Bursera species they feed on.
These plants are also susceptible to specialized insects that can deactivate canals by cutting veins or trenches Becerra, b. Trenching and vein-cutting behaviors have been reported for lepidopterans, orthopterans and coleopterans, and there is a correlation between resin canal organization and method of deactivation by insects Dussourd and Denno, Some species of Bursera also produce very simple resins consisting primarily of one or two simple monoterpenes.
Bursera filicifolia Bursera fragantissima Bursera fragilis Bursera galeottiana Engl.
It seems then, that the antipredator strategy of B. It furthers the University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.
These include structures such as spines, trichomes, and hard, very sticky, or smooth surfaces. However, larvae reared on lettuce, regained full protection when their shields were removed and replaced with host-derived shields.
Retrieved from ” https: Bursera infiernidialis Bursera instabilis Bursera isthmica. The occurrence of complex mixtures of compounds, is a widespread phenomenon among plants that produce terpenoids and it has been associated with several factors Gershenzon and Croteau,